Pronounced pro-seh-RAT-oh-SORE-us brad-lee-eye
Proceratosaurus means ‘lizard before Ceratosaurus' in Greek, and bradleyi refers to Mr F Lewis Bradley, who discovered the first specimen in the early 1900s.
This small early tyrannosaur had unusually enlarged nostrils and a head crest.
The small Proceratosaurus is known from a single partial skull of a subadult individual. It had unusally enlarged nostrils and a head crest - features typical of others in its family Proceratosauridae - and marked size differences between the teeth at the front of the mouth and those at the sides.
This species had a skull with internal air spaces, as with other tyrannosaurs such as T. rex, and also the D-shaped front teeth typical of all tyrannosaurs.
Proceratosaurus lived in what is now England, Europe, about 168-166 million years ago during the Middle Jurassic.
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Feeding and diet
As with most other theropods, Proceratosaurus was a predator and had serrated sharp teeth. Although it is only known from a single skull, it can be assumed the animal was two-legged with a long tail, as with other theropods.
The only known fossil - a 30cm-long skull - was found in Gloucestershire, England, in the early 1900s and originally called Megalosaurus in 1910, but reclassified as a tyrannosaur in 2009.
The skull was originally described in 1910 as a new theropod species Megalosaurus and also considered an ancestor of Ceratosaurus because of the similar crest on its snout. It wasn't until the skull was rexamined using CT scans in 2010, that its tyrannosaur features were revealed. Among other tyrannosaurs, Proceratosaurus is most closely related to Guanlong and Kileskus. Its discovery leads scientists to believe early tyrannosaurs were widespread across the Northern Hemisphere.
Rauhut, O.W.M., Milner, A.C. and Moore-Fay, S. (2010). "Cranial osteology and phylogenetic position of the theropod dinosaur Proceratosaurus bradleyi (Woodward, 1910) from the Middle Jurassic of England". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society