Even though insects make up more than 70% of Australia’s biodiversity, plant scientists are concerned about our role in weakening the plant/pollinator relationship. Of the 220,000 species of insects in Australia, 35% remain undocumented, compared to 5% of vertebrate species. Can flo

Focus question:

Can flower types be predictors of insect pollinators?

Concepts/Key Words
Bees Flies Flower types: tubular Pollen
Beetles Flower types: brush Insects Pollinator
Butterflies Flower types: open Nectar Species

Getting Started

  1. Pre-assessment focus questions could be: Why do flowers need a pollinator? What types of pollinators are there? What types of flower shapes are there? How would you describe the NSW flower emblem (the Waratah), Why does an insect visit flowers? What attracts insects to flowers? List all answers, questions and concepts as they arise. Demonstrate plant insect interrelation with Life Cycle and Process diagram (see support materials C). Discuss where bees, butterflies, beetles and other insects, including ants, fit in this cycle. Review pollination. Use on-line presentation for guidance.
  2. Engage students’ interest in insects by using digi-cam/microscope, magnifying glasses to look at butterflies, bees, wasps, flies, beetles that have been temporarily refrigerated. Focus on mouth parts that will suck up the food for the insect. Compare and contrast mouth parts. Draw, or use digi-cams to view on computers.
  3. Explore gardens to observe flower types. Use the Flower Insect Matrix (see support materials I). Choose three contrasting flower types to dissect under a magnifying glass or digicam. Hypothesise about the attractants and devise an experiment to test the hypothesis e.g Are colours an attractant? Experiment with different coloured pan traps. (see Bugwise Invertebrate Collection manual) Revisit the garden with the Pollinator Preference key (see support materials J). Create a profile of the insect life in the garden.
  4. Elaborate on the mechanics of pollination. View the Methods of Pollination video. Create a craft flower and pipe cleaner insect. Use the How to make a bee pollinator exercise (see support materials D) Create an experiment that tests the role of flower shape in attracting native v feral bees in attracting. (see P2P presentation)
  5. Evaluate the school garden as a rich source of insect pollinators and visitors. Which plants would be bee attractors? Which would be butterfly attractors? Can you see evidence of the insects visit? What are those clues? Choose a mature tree (e.g Acacia, Leptospermum) and observe the insects on it by leaf beating technique. Discuss the role of the insects collected - pollinators, predators or dispersers?

Support material

  • Methods of Pollination Videos DoItYourself.com
  • Invertebrate Collection Manual
  • Flowers and Insects Observation Matrix (I)
  • How to make a bee pollinator (D)
  • Butterfly net
  • Cyclops digi-cams
  • Magnifying glass
  • Life in the Undergrowth, episode 4 [DVD]
  • Pollinator Preference Key (J)
  • Camera
  • Flowering Times for Native Plants and Insect Calendar (K)
  • Insect Pollinator Identification Key (H)
  • P2P presentation (M)

Underlying science

  • Over millions of years flowers have evolved a remarkable range of strategies to guarantee that male pollen is transferred to female parts of the flower. Insects — especially bees and wasps, butterflies, moths, beetles and flies are the predominant animal pollinators. They have physical characteristics that make them extremely efficient in locating flowers and transferring pollen from one flower to another.
  • The typical flower contains the necessary parts for enticing pollinators and producing seeds. The centre of a flower usually contains the female, pollen-receiving pistil or carpel. The stigma at its tip is often sticky designed to trap pollen. At the base of the pistil, the generally hidden ovary protects ovules (eggs), which become seeds when fertilized. The male parts, or stamens, typically surround the pistil. They may be quite long, to maximize exposure to wind and pollinators; hidden inside the flowers, to force pollinators to touch the stigmas on their way in or out; or able to lengthen and shorten over time, as needed. The stamen is made up of the filament that supports the anther which produces and releases huge quantities of pollen.
  • The pollen descends down the style of the sigma and fertilizes an ovule, leading to seed production. Once fertilized, the ovary wall takes in moisture and swells, becoming the fruit, which surrounds and protects the developing seeds.
  • Plants attract pollinators in various ways, by offering pollen or nectar meals and by guiding them to the flower using scent and visual cues. This has resulted in strong relationships between plants and the animals that pollinate them. Long- tongued bees and butterflies, and the tubular plants they pollinate are examples of such adaptation.
  • However pollination can be the result of a visit from any insect who has visited a flower for a variety of purposes. Insects do visit plants and their flowers for a variety of reasons, apart from the sweet reward of nectar and the nutritious benefits of pollen. Flowers can also provide food, shelter, brooding places, pollen feeding and collection, resin and oils for nest building.