Key Info

  • Section
    Mineralogy and Petrology
    Natural Science Collections
    Australian Museum Research Institute

Email Dr Frederick Lin Sutherland

Dr Lin Sutherland started his career as Geologist, Queen Victoria Museum, Launceston, Tasmania, 1958- 965, then as a Keeper in Geology and Archaeology at the Tasmanian Museum, Hobart, which included the Memorial Mining Museum, in Zeehan, from 1966-1970. After a Lecturer position in Petrology at James Cook University, Townsville, in 1971, he joined The Australian Museum in Sydney in 1973. From Curator of Mineralogy and Petrology, he progressed through the Senior Research Scientist and Principal Research Scientist ranks, until his retirement in 2001. He was awarded Senior Fellow status at the Australian Museum and an Adjunct Professorship, School of Science, University of Western Sydney until 2012. He remains a Senior Fellow at Australian Museum.

His research interests include Australasian and Asian minerals and gemstones, volcanoes along western Pacific margins, high pressure mineralogy and petrology of mantle and crustal fragments erupted in tectonic settings, mass extinction events and World Mineral collections. This led to books on Gemstones of the Southern Continents, The Volcanic Earth, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Gemstones and Minerals of Australia’ (with Gayle Webb) and ‘Geology of Barrington Tops Plateau: Rocks, Minerals and Gemstones’ (with Ian Graham). He is a Life Member of the Mineralogical Society of NSW, and had two terms as President, Royal Society of NSW.

In research studies, he has authored and co-authored over 160 peer reviewed scientific papers that involved Australia, New Zealand, Oceania, Asia, Russia and South America. He has added considerable geological materials to the Australian Museum collections from research and curating activities around the World. He engaged in many Australian Museum exhibits, public programs, Museum Society ventures and myriads of research and visitor enquiries.


  • BSc (Hons) 1962 and MSc, 1966, from University of Tasmania
  • PhD from James Cook University, Townsville, 1980
  • Fellow of the Geological Society of Australia (FGSA)
  • Fellow of the Australian Institute of Geologists (FAIG)


Current: Guest Editor, Minerals Special Issue on Ruby, Mineralogy Geochemistry and allied Assemblages, MDPI Publications, Basle, Switzerland.

Grants, awards and scholarships

Grants, Post –Retirement. Australian Museum Grants 2002-2004, AU $38,000.

Australian Museum Society, AU $5000.


  1. Sutherland F.L. 1964. Pumice from Tasmania. Aust. J. Sci. 26, 397.
  2. Sutherland F.L. 1964. Discovery of Turquoise in Tasmania. Aust. J. Sci. 27, 82.
  3. Sutherland F.L. 1964. The Geology of the Collinsvale Area. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 98, 119-135.
  4. Sutherland F.L. 1965. Some Observations on the Dolerite Intrusions and Associated Structures at Golden Valley, Northern Tasmania. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 99, 9-14.
  5. Sutherland F.L. 1965. Some New Occurrences of Zeolites and Associated Minerals in the Tertiary Basalts of Tasmania. Aust. J. Sci. 28.26.
  6. Sutherland F.L. 1965. Dispersal of Pumice, supposedly from the 1962 South Sandwich Islands Eruption, on Southern Australian shores. Nature 207, 1332-1335.
  7. Sutherland F.L. 1966. Considerations on the Emplacement of the Jurassic Dolerite of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 100, 133-145.
  8. Sutherland F.L. 1966. The Tertiary Volcanics of the Tasmar Valley, northern Tasmania – A Preliminary Report. Aust. J. Sci. 29, 14.
  9. Sutherland F.L. and Corbett K.D. 1967. Tertiary Volcanic Rocks of Far North-Western Tasmania. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 101, 71-90.
  10. Sutherland F.L. and Olsen A.M. 1968. Persistence of Drift Pumice in Southern Australasian Waters. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 102, 1-5.
  11. Sutherland F.L. 1969. A Comparison of the Cainozoic Volcanic Provinces of Victoria and Tasmania. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 82, 179-185.
  12. Sutherland F.L. 1969. The Mineralogy, Petrochemistry and Magmatic History of the Tamar Lavas, Northern Tasmania. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 103, 17-34.
  13. Sutherland F.L. 1969. A Review of the Tasmanian Cainozoic Volcanic Province. Spec. Pubs. Geol. Soc. Aust. 2, 133-144.
  14. Jennings D.I. and Sutherland F.L. 1969. Geology of the Cape Portland Area, with special reference to the Mesozoic Appinitic Rocks. Tech. Rep. Dept. Mines. Tasm. 13, 45-82.
  15. Sutherland, F.L. and Hale G.E. 1970. Cainozoic Volcanism in and around Great Lake, Central Tasmania. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 104, 17-32.
  16. Sutherland F.L. 1971. The Geology and Petrology of the Tertiary Volcanic Rocks of the Tamar Tough Northern Tasmania. Rec. Queen. Vict. Mus. 36, 1-58.
  17. Sutherland F.L. and Kershaw R.C. 1971. The Cainozoic Geology of Flinders Island, Bass Strait. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 105, 151-176.
  18. Sutherland F.L. 1971. The Question of Late Cainozoic Uplifts in Tasmania. Search 2, 11-12.
  19. Sutherland F.L. 1972. The Classification, Distribution, Analysis and Source of Materials in the Flaked Stone Implements of Tasmanian Aborigines. Rec. Queen Vic. Mus. 42, 1-45.

20. Kershaw R.C. and Sutherland F.L. 1972. Quaternary Geomorphology of Flinders Island. Rec. Queen Vic. Mus. 43, 1-28.

21. Sutherland F.L. 1973. The Shoshonitic Association in the Upper Mesozoic of Tasmania. J. Geol. Soc. Aust. 19, 487-496.

22. Sutherland F.L. 1973. The Geological Development of the Southern Shores and Islands of Bass Strait. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict. 85, 133-144.

23 Sutherland F.L., Green D.C. and Wyatt B. 1973. Age of the Great Lake Basalts, Tasmania, in relation to Australian Cainozoic Volcanism. J. Geol. Soc. Aust. 20, 85- 94.

24. Sutherland F.L. 1973. Igneous Rocks, Central Plateau in The Lake Country of Tasmania. Roy. Soc. Tasm. Symp. (Ed. M.R. Banks), 43-53, Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart.

25. Sutherland F.L. 1974. High-Pressure Inclusions in Tholeiitic Basalt and the Range of Lherzolite-bearing Magmas in the Tasmanian Volcanic Province. Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 24, 317-324.

26. Sutherland F.L. and Corbett E.B. 1974. The extent of Upper Mesozoic Igneous Activity in relation to lamprophyric intrusions in Tasmania. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 107, 175-190.

27. Tedford R.H., Kemp N.R., McDougall I. and Sutherland F.L. 1975. Recognition of the oldest known fossil marsupials from Australia. Nature 255, 141-142.

28. Sutherland F.L. 1975. Magmatism associated with the dispersion of the Australasian segment of Gondwanaland in Gondwana Geology, Proceedings of the Third Gondwana Symposium (Ed. K.S.W. Campbell), 681-692, A.N.U. Press, Canberra.

29. Sutherland F.L. 1975. Apophyllite in Tasmania. Aust. Mineral. 1, 3-4.

30. Sutherland F.L. 1975. Cainozoic Volcanic Rocks in Hobart (Comp. D.E. Leaman): Geol. Surv. Explan. Rep., 35-56. Tasmania Dept. Mines, Hobart.

31. Sutherland F.L. 1976. Tacharanite from Tasmania, Australia. Mineral. Mag. 40, 887-890.

32. Sutherland F.L. 1976. Tasmania and N. Queensland provinces in XENMEG: a catalogue of occurrences of xenoliths and megacrysts in basic volcanic rocks of Eastern Australia (Comp. S.Y. Wass and A.J. Irving). Aust. Mus. Spec. Publ. 5-19, 327-395, Australian Museum, Sydney.

33. Sutherland F.L. 1977. Cainozoic volcanic rocks in Brighton (Comp. D.E. Leaman) Geol. Surv. Explan. Rept., 25-37. Tasmania Dept. Mines, Hobart.

34. Sutherland F.L. 1977. Zeolite Minerals in the Jurassic Dolerites of Tasmania: their use as possible indicators of burial depth. J. Geol. Soc. Aust. 24, 171-178.

35. Sutherland F.L. 1977. Cainozoic Basalts of the Mt. Fox Area, North Queensland. Rec. Aust. Mus. 30, 532-543.

36. Sutherland F.L., Stubbs D. and Green D.C. 1977. K-Ar ages of Cainozoic Volcanic Suites, Bowen-St. Lawrence Hinterland, Northern Queensland (with some implications for petrologic models). J. Geol. Soc. Aust. 24, 447-460.

37. Sutherland F.L. 1978. Mesozoic-Cainozoic Volcanism of Australia. Tectonophysics 48, 414-427.

38. Sutherland F.L. 1978. Introduction to Zeolite Minerals. Aust. Mineral.

18, 85-87.

39. Stephenson P.J., Griffin T.J. and Sutherland F.L. 1980. Cainozoic volcanism in North-Eastern Australia in Geology and Geophysics of North-Eastern Australia (Eds R.A. Henderson and P.J. Stephenson), 349-374, Geol. Soc. Aust. (Qld. Div.), James Cook University Press, Townsville.

40. Sutherland F.L. 1980. Aquagene volcanism in the Tasmanian Tertiary in relation to coastal seas and river systems. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 114, 177-199.

41. Sutherland F.L. 1981. Migration in relation to possible tectonic and regional controls in Eastern Australian volcanism. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 9, 181-213.

42. Sutherland F.L. and Hollis J.D. 1982. Mantle-Lower Crust petrology from inclusions in basaltic rocks in Eastern Australia. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 14, 1-29.

43. Sutherland F.L. 1983. Cainozoic basalts in Oatlands (Comp. S.M. Forsyth). Geol. Surv. Explan. Report, 102-120. Tasmania Dept. Mines, Hobart.

44. Hollis J.D., Sutherland F.L. and Pogson R.E. 1983. High pressure minerals and the origin of the Tertiary breccia pipe, Ballogie Gem Mine, near Proston, Queensland. Rec. Aust. Mus. 35,181-194.

45. Sutherland F.L. 1983. The timing, trace and origin of Eastern Australian volcanism. Nature, 305 (5930), 123-126.

46. Sutherland F.L., Hollis J.D. and Barron L.M. 1984. Garnet Lherzolite and other inclusions from a basalt flow, Bow Hill, Tasmania in Kimberlites II: The Mantle and Crust-Mantle Relationships. (Ed. J. Kornprobst), 245-260, Elsvier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam and Appendix in Kimberlites III (Ed. J. Kornprobst), Annales de Univ. Clermont Ferrand.

47. Robertson A.D., Sutherland F.L. and Hollis J.D. 1985. Upper mantle xenoliths and megacrysts and the origin of the Brigooda Basalt and Breccia, near Proston, Queensland, Pap. Dep. Geol. Univ. Qld. 11(3), 58-71.

48. Hollis J.D. and Sutherland F.L. 1985. Occurrences and Origins of gem Zircons in Eastern Australia. Rec. Aust. Mus. 36, 229-311.

49. Sutherland F.L. 1985. Cainozoic basalts in Kingborough (Comp. N. Farmer and M. Clarke). Geol. Surv. Explan. Rep., 73-83. Tasmanian Dept. Mines, Hobart.

50. Sutherland F.L., Hollis J.D. and Raynor, L.R. 1985. Diamonds from nepheline mugearite? A discussion of ‘Garnet websterites and associated ultramafic inclusions from a nepheline mugearite in the Walcha area, New South Wales, Australia’? Mineral. Mag. 49, 748-751.

51 Sutherland F.L. 1985. Regional Controls in Eastern Australian volcanism in

Volcanism in Eastern Australia, with case histories from New South Wales (Eds. F.L. Sutherland, B.J. Franklin and A.E. Waltho). Publ. Geol. Soc. Aust. N.S.W. Div. 1, 33-41.

52. Hollis J.D., Sutherland F.L. and Gleadow A.J. 1986. The occurrence and possible origins of large zircons in Alkali volcanics of Eastern Australia in Crystal chemistry of Minerals. Proceedings 13th General Meeting International Mineralogical Association Varna September 19-25th 1982, 565-578, Publishing house of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.

53. Koul S.L., Chadderton L.J. and Sutherland F.L. 1986. On the annealing behaviour of fission tracks in zeolites. Nuclear Tracks radiation measurements. Int. J. App. Instrument D11 (1/2), 85-92.

54. Sutherland F.L. and Wellman P. 1986. Potassium-argon ages of Tertiary volcanic rocks, Tasmania. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 120, 77-86.

55. Griffin W.L., Sutherland F.L. and Hollis J.D. 1987. Geothermal profile and crust- mantle transition beneath east-central Queensland: volcanology, xenolith petrology and seismic data. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 31, 177-203.

56. England B.M. and Sutherland F.L. 1988. Volcanic Zeolites and Associated Minerals from New South Wales. Mineral. Rec. 19, 389-406.

57. Sutherland F.L., Roots W.D. and Robertson A.D. 1988. Late Compression and relative rotation events between eastern Australia and the Tasman sea floor in New England Orogen Tectonics and Metallogenesis (Ed. J.D. Kleeman), 186-191, Department of Geology and Geophysics University of New England, Armidale, Australia.

58. Sutherland F.L. 1989. Tertiary Volcanism in Geology and Mineral Resources of Tasmania. A Bicentennial Volume (Eds C.F. Burrett and E.L. Martin), Spec. Publ. Geol. Soc. Aust. 15, 383-386.

59. Sutherland F.L., Ewart A., Raynor L.R., Hollis J.D. and McDonough W.F. 1989. Tertiary basaltic magmas and the Tasmanian Lithosphere in Geology and Mineral Resources of Tasmania. A Bicentennial volume (Eds. C.F. Burrett and E.L. Martin) Spec. Publ. Gol. Soc. Aust. 15, 386-398.

60. Sutherland F.L. 1989. Demise of the Dinosaurs and Other Denizens – by Cosmic Clout, Volcanic Vapours or Other Means. J. Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. 121, 123-164.

61. Sutherland F.L. 1989. Cainozoic Volcanic Rocks (Comp. S.M. Forsyth) Sheet 8313N in Interlaken. Explan. Rep. Gol. Surv. Tasm., 48-60. Dept. Mines, Hobart.

62. Sutherland F.L. and Contributors 1989. Central Queensland in Intraplate Volcanism in Australia and New Zealand (Ed. R.W. Johnson), 97-107. Cambridge Univ. Press.

63. Sutherland F.L. and Contributors 1989. Tasmania and Bass Strait in Intraplate Volcanism in Australia and New Zealand (Ed. R.W. Johnson), 143-149. Cambridge Univ. Press.

64. Duggan M.B., Sutherland F.L. and Martin D.J. 1989. Mesozoic Intraplate Volcanism and Related Intrusions in Intraplate Volcanism in Australia and New Zealand (Ed. R.W. Johnson), 149-152. Cambridge Univ. Press.

65. Robertson A.D., Sutherland F.L. and Hollis J.D. 1989. Bundaburg and Boyne in Intraplate Volcanism in Australia and New Zealand (Ed. R.W. Johnson and others), 107-109. Cambridge Univ. Press.

66. Sutherland F.L., Robertson A.D., Hendry D.L. and Hollis J.D. 1990. Xenolith suites from Southern Queensland: The lithosphere below volcanic regions in The Eromanga-Brisbane Geoscience Transect (Ed. D.M. Finlayson). Aust. Bur. Miner. Resour. Bull. 232, 213-215.

67. Coenraads R.R., Sutherland F.L. and Kinny P.D. 1990. The origin of sapphires: U-Pb dating of zircon inclusions sheds a new light. Mineral. Mag. 54, 113-122.

68. Sutherland F.L. and Kinealy K. 1990. A rare occurrence of barium-bearing zeolites in garnet metapyroxenite xenoliths from the Brigooda volcanic centre, southern Queensland. Aust. Mineral. 5, 55-62.

69. Sutherland F.L. 1991. Cainozoic Volcanism, Eastern Australia: A Predictive Model based on Migration over multiple ‘Hot Spot’ Magma Sources in Cenozoic of the Australian Region; a reappraisal of the evidence (Eds. M.A.J. Williams, P. de Decker and A.P. Kershaw). Spec. Publ. Geol. Soc. Aust. 18, 15-43.

70. Coenraads R.R., Paige S.C.B. and Sutherland F.L. 1991. Ilmenite mantled rutile crystals from the Uralla district, New South Wales. J. Proc. Roy. Soc. NSW. 124, 23-34.

71. Bevan A.W.R., Griffin B., Pogson R.E. and Sutherland F.L. 1992. Tabbita: An L6c chondrite from New South Wales, Australia, Meteoritics 27, 97-98.

72. Baillie P.W. and Sutherland F.L. 1992. Devonian lamprophyres from Mt. Lyell, western Tasmania. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 126, 19-22.

73. Robertson A.D.C. and Sutherland F.L. 1992. Possible origins and ages for sapphire and diamond from the central Queensland gem fields, in R.O. Chalmers, Commemorative papers (Mineralogy, Meteoritics, Geology) (Ed. L. Sutherland), Rec. Aus. Mus., Suppl. 15, 45-54.

74. Robertson A.D.C. and Sutherland F.L. 1993. A note on the petrology and age of basalt in the vicinity of Childers. Qld. Gov. Min. J. 94 (1096), 15-17.

75. Sutherland F.L., Pogson R.E. and Hollis J.D. 1993. Growth of the central New England basaltic gem fields, New South Wales, based on zircon fission track dating in New England Orogen, eastern Australia (Eds. P.G. Flood and J.C. Aitchison), 483-491. Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of New England, Armidale.

76. Sutherland F.L. 1993. Demise of the Dinosaurs and other Denizens II – by Combined Catastrophic Causes? J. Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. 126, 1-25.

77. Sutherland F.L. 1993. Late thermal events based on zircon fission track ages in northeastern New South Wales and southeastern Queensland: Links to Sydney Basin seismicity? Aust. J. Earth Sci. 40, 461-470.

78. Sutherland F.L., Raynor L.R. and Pogson R.E. 1994. Spinel to garnet lherzolite transition in relation to high temperature palaeogeotherms, eastern Australia. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 41, 205-220.

79. Sutherland F.L. 1994. Volcanism around K/T boundary time – its role in an impact scenario for K/T extinction events. Earth-Sci. Rev. 36, 1-26.

80. Sutherland, F.L. 1994. Tasman Sea Evolution and Hotspot Trails in Tasman Sea Basin (Eds G.J. van der Lingen, K.M. Swanson and R.J. Muir), 35-51. Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam.

81. Sutherland F.L., Temby P., Raynor L.R. and Hollis J.D. 1994. A review of the East Australian diamond province in Diamonds: Characterization, Genesis and Exploration.Proceedings of the Fifth International Kimberlite Conference, Araxa, Brazil 1991: 2 (Eds H.O.A. Meyer and O.H. Leonardos) 170-184, Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais CPRM – Spec. Publ. 1/B, Brasilia.

82. Robertson A.D. and Sutherland F.L.,1994. Mount Headlow Trachyte in Field Conference ’94 Capricorn Region (Eds. R.J. Holcombe, C.J. Stephens, and C.R. Fielding), 118-212, Geol. Soc. Aust. Qld. Div., Brisbane.

83. Sutherland F.L. 1994. The volcanic fall of Pompeii in Pompeii Revisited: The Life and Death of a Roman Town. (Comp. J.P. Descoeudres, Ed. D. Harrison), 72-75. Meditarch, Sydney.

84. Coenraads R.R., Vichit P. and Sutherland F.L. 1995. An unusual sapphire-zircon-magnetite xenolith from the Chanthaburi Gem Province, Thailand. Mineral. Mag., 54, 467-481.

85. Sutherland F.L. and Coenraads R.R. 1995. An unusual ruby-sapphire-sapphirine-spinel assemblage from the Tertiary Barrington volcanic province, New South Wales. Mineral. Mag., 60, 623-638.

86. Sutherland F.L. 1996. Introduction in The Nicholas Rock Symposium: Alkaline rocks and their associated mineralisation, Aust. J. Earth Sci. 43, 229-230.

87. Sutherland F.L. 1996. Alkaline rocks and gemstones, Australia: A review and synthesis. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 43, 323-343

88. Barron B.J., Robertson A.D.C. and Sutherland F.L. 1996. Olivine “leucitites, their xenolith and megacryst suites, Hosking Peak, north Queensland. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 43, 231-244.

89. Barron L.M., Lishmund S.R., Oakes G.M., Barron B.J. and Sutherland F.L. 1996. Subduction model for the origin of some diamonds in the Phanerozoic of eastern New South Wales. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 43, 257-267.

90. Sutherland F.L. 1996. The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary impact and its global effects with references to Australia. AGSO J. Aust. Geol. Geophys. 16, 567-585

91. Sutherland F.L., Hendry D.F., Barron B.J., Matthews W.L. and Hollis J.D. 1996. An unusual Tertiary basalt sequence, near Boat Harbour, Northwest Tasmania. Rec. Aust. Mus. 48, 131-161.

92. Meyer H.O.A., Milledge H.J., Sutherland F.L. and Kennewell P. 1997. Unusual diamonds and unique inclusions from New South Wales, Australia. Russian Geol. Geophys. 38, 305-331.

93. Sutherland F.L. 1998. Origin of north Queensland Cenozoic Volcanism: Relationships to long lava flow basaltic fields, Australia. J. Geophys. Res. 103 (B11), 27347-27358.

94. Sutherland F.L. and Barron B.J. 1998. Balmoral Beach Aboriginal Shell Midden: Pumice petrology and sources. Rec. Aust. Mus. 50, 241-262.

95. Sutherland F.L., Hoskin P.O.W., Fanning C.M. and Coenraads R.R. 1998. Models of corundum origin from alkali basalt terrains: a reappraisal. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 133, 356-372.

96. Sutherland F.L., Pogson R.E. and Barron B.J. 1998. Discussion and Reply. Palaeogeothermal gradients in Australia: key to 4-D lithospheric mapping. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 45, 817-821.

97. Sutherland F.L., Schwarz D., Jobbins E.A., Coenraads R.R. and Webb G. 1998. Distinctive gem corundum suites from discrete basalt fields: a comparative study of Barrington, Australia, and West Pailin, Cambodia, gemfields. J. Gemmol. 26, 65-85.

98. Webb G. and Sutherland F.L. 1998. Gemstones of New England, Aust. J. Mineral. 4(2), 115-121.

99. Sutherland F.L. 1999. Volcanism, Geotherms, Gemstones and Lithosphere since orogenesis, N.E. New South Wales: A synthesis in New England Orogen - Regional Geology, Tectonics and Metallogenesis (Ed. P.G. Flood), 355-364. Univ. New England, Armidale, NSW.

100. Pogson R., Sutherland F.L. and G. Webb 2000. The mineral collection of the Australian Museum, Aust. J. of Mineral. 6(2), 51-58.

101. Sutherland F.L., Pogson R.E., Birch W.D., Henry D.A., Pring A., Bevan A.W.R., Stadler H.A. and Graham I.T. 2000. Mineral species first described from Australia and their type specimens. Aust. J. of Mineral. 6(2), 105-128.

102. Sutherland F.L. and Schwarz D. 2001. Origin of gem corundums from basaltic fields. Aust. Gemmol. 21(1), 30-33.

103. Sutherland F.L. and Fanning C.M. 2001. Gem-bearing basaltic volcanism, Barrington, New South Wales: Cenozoic evolution, based on basalt K-Ar ages and zircon fission track and U-Pb isotope dating. Aust. J. of Earth Sci. 48, 221-237.

104. Sutherland F.L., Graham I.T., Pogson, R.E., Schwarz, D., Webb G.B., Coenraads R.R., Fanning C.M., Hollis J.D. and Allen T.C. 2002. The Tumbarumba basaltic gemfield, New South Wales: In relation to sapphire-ruby deposits of east Australia. Rec. Aust. Mus. 54(2), 215-248.

105. Sutherland F.L., Bosshart G., Fanning C.M., Hoskin P.W.O. and Coenraads R.R. 2002. Sapphire crystallization age and origin, Ban Hua Sai, Laos: age based on zircon inclusions. J. Asian Earth Sci. 20: 841-849.

106 Rodgers, K.A., Sutherland, F.L. and Hoskin, P.W.O. 2003. Basalts from Rose Atoll, American Samoa. Rec. Aust. Mus. 55, 141-152.

107. Sutherland, F.L., Coenraads, R.R., Schwarz, D., Raynor, L.R., Barron, B.J., and Webb, G.B. 2003. Al-rich diopside in alluvial ruby and corundum-bearing xenoliths, Australian and SE Asian basalt fields. Mineral. Mag. 67, 717-732.

108. Sutherland, F.L. 2003. 'Boomerang' migratory intraplate Cenozoic volcanism, eastern Australian rift margins and the Indian-Pacific mantle boundary in Evolution and Dynamics of the Australian Plate (Eds R.R. Hillis, and R.D. Müller), 203-221. Geological Society of Australia Special Publication 22 and Geological Society of America Special Paper 372.

109. Sutherland, F.L., and Barron, L.M. 2003. Diamonds of multiple origins from New South Wales: further data and discussion. Aust. J. of Earth Sci. 50 (6), 975-981.

110. Sutherland, F.L., Hollis, J.D., Birch, W.D., Pogson, R.E., and Raynor, L.R. 2004. Cumulate-rich xenolith suite in Late Cenozoic basaltic eruptives, Hepburn Lagoon, Newlyn, in relation to the western Victorian lithospheric mantle. Aust. J. of Earth Sci. 51, 319-337.

111. Roberts, D.L., Sutherland, F.L., Hollis, J.D., Kennewell, P., and Graham, I.T. 2004. Gemstone characteristics, North East Barrington Plateau, NSW, J. Proc. Roy. Soc. NSW. 137, 99-122.
112. Sutherland, F.L., and Bottrill, R.S., 2004. Zeolites of western Tasmania. Aust. J. Mineral. 10(2), 59-72.

113. Sutherland, F.L., Graham, I.T. and Zwingmann, H. 2004. Late Cenozoic basalts, Uplands Province, N. E. Victoria: in relation to the Newer Volcanics basalts of Western Victoria. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict. 116, 51-68

114. Sutherland, F.L., Graham, I.T., Zwingmann, H., Pogson, R.E. and Baron, B.J., 2005. Belmore Volcanic Province, northeastern New South Wales and some implications for plume variations along migratory trails. Austr. J. of Earth Sci. 52, 897-919.

115. Sutherland, F.L., Raynor, L.R. and Pogson, R.E., 2005. Table Cape Vent xenolith suite, Northwest Tasmania: Mineralogy and implications for crust-mantle lithology and Miocene geotherms in Tasmania. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 139, 7-22.

116. Sutherland, F.L., Colchester, D.M. and Webb, G.B., 2005. An apparent diatreme source for gem corundums and zircons, Gloucester River, New South Wales. J. Proc. Roy. Soc. NSW. 138, 77-84.

117. Sutherland, F.L., 2006. Gemstone Mining and exploration in Australia. Aust. Gemmol. 22, 496-502.

118. Sutherland, F.L., Graham, I.T., Forsyth, S.M., Zwingmann, H. and Everard, J.L. 2006. The Tamar Trough revisited: Correlation between sedimentary beds, basalts their ages and valley evolution, North Tasmania. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 140, 49-72.

119. Khin Zaw, Sutherland, F.L., Dellapasqua, F., Ryan, C.G., Tzen-Fui Yui, Menargh T.P. and Duncan, D., 2006. Contrast in gem corundum characteristics, eastern Australian basalt fields: Trace elements, fluid/melt inclusions and oxygen isotopes. Mineral. Mag. 70(6), 669-687.

120. Sutherland, F.L., and Webb, G.B. 2007. Australian sapphires and rubies. Rocks and Minerals 82(2), 116-125.

121 Birch, W.D., Barron, L.M., McGee, C. and Sutherland, F.L. 2007. Gold-and diamond-bearing White Hills Gravel, ST Arnaud district, Victoria. Austr. J. of Earth Sci. 54, 609-628.

122. Sutherland, F. L., Barron, B.J., Colchester, D.M. and McKinnon, A.R. 2007. Unusual baryte-bearing hybrid basalt, Bourke-Byrock area, northern New South Wales. J. Proc. Roy. Soc. NSW. 140, 27-45.

123. Sutherland, F.L., Duroc-Danner, J. M. and Meffre, S. 2008. Age and origin of gem corundum and zircon megacrysts from the Mercaderes-Rio Mayo area, South-West Colombia, South America. Special Issue ‘The Genesis of Gem Deposits’ (Guest Eds I.T. Graham, Khin Zaw and N.J. Cook), Ore Geol. Rev. 34 (1-2), 155-168.

124. Graham, I.T., Sutherland, F.L., Khin Zaw, Nachaev, V. and Khanchuk, A. 2008 Advances in our understanding of the gem corundum deposits of the West Pacific continental margins intraplate basaltic fields. Special Issue ‘The Genesis of Gem Deposits’ (Guest Eds I.T. Graham, Khin Zaw and N.J. Cook), Ore Geol. Rev. 34(1-2), 200-215.

125. Sutherland, F.L., Barron, B.J., Pogson, R.E., Everard, J.L., Forsyth, S.M. and Hollis, J.D. 2008. Unusual pegmatoid crystallisations in a nephelinitic plug, near Round Lagoon, eastern Central Plateau, Tasmania. Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 142 (2), 23-38.

126. Saminpanya, S. and Sutherland, F.L. 2008. Black opaque gem minerals associated with corundum in the alluvial deposits of Thailand. Aust. Gemmol. 23(6), 242-253.

127. Sutherland, F.L., Zaw, K., Meffre, S., Giuliani, G., Fallick, A.E. and Graham, I.T. 2008. Applied Mineralogy in characterising origins of natural sapphire. Ninth International Congress for Applied Mineralogy, Brisbane, QLD, 8-10 September 2008. AusIMM, Melbourne, 561-565.

128. Sutherland, F.L., Giuliani, G., Fallick, A.E., Garland, M. and Webb, G. 2009. Sapphire-ruby characteristics, West Pailin, Cambodia: Clues to their origin based on trace element and O isotope analysis. Aust. Gemmol. 23(9), 401-407.

129. Sutherland, F.L. and Meffre, S. 2009. Zircon megacryst ages and chemistry, from a placer, Dunedin volcanic area, eastern Otago, New Zealand. N Z J. Geol. Geophys. 52, 185-194.

130. Sutherland, F.L., Zaw, K., Meffre, S., Giuliani, G., Fallick, A.E., Graham, I.T. and Webb, G.B. 2009. Gem corundum megacrysts from east Australian basalt fields Austr. J. of Earth Sci. 56, 1003-1022.

131. Sutherland, F.L. and Abduriyim, A. 2009. Geographic typing of gem corundum:a test case from Australia. J.Gemmol. 31 (5-8), 203-210.

132. Nechaev, V.P., Nechaeva, E.V., Chashchin, A.A., Vysotskiy, S.V., Graham, I.T. and Sutherland, F.L. 2009. New isotopic data on Late Cenozoic age and mantle origin of gem zircon and corundum from placers of Primore, Russia. Doklady Earth Sci. 429A (9), 365-368.

133. Czuppon, G., Matsumoto, T., Matsuda, J-i., Everard, J. and Sutherland L. 2010. Noble gases in anhydrous mantle xenoliths from Tasmania in comparison with other localities from eastern Australia: Implications for the tectonic evolution. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 299, 317-327.

134. Sutherland, F.L. 2011. Diversity within Geodiversity, underpinning habitats in New South Wales volcanic areas. Proc. Linn. Soc. NSW 132, 37-54

135. Saminpanya, S. and Sutherland, F.L. 2011. Different origins of Thai area sapphire and ruby derived from mineral inclusions and co-existing minerals. Eur.J. Mineral. 23 (4), 683-694.

136. Grave, P., Attenbrow, V., Sutherland, L., Pogson, R.E. and Forster, V., 2012. Non-destructive pXRF of mafic stone tools. J.Archaeol. Sci. 39(6), 1674-1686.

137. Kanouo, N.S., Khin Zaw,Yongue, R.F., Sutherland, F.L., Meffre, S., Njonfang, E., Ma, C. and Tchuoatcha, M.S. 2012. U–Pb zircon age constraining the source and provenance of gem-bearing Late Cenozoic detrital deposits, Mampfe Basin, SW Cameroon. Resour. Geol. 62 (3), 316-325.

138. Kanouo, N.S., Zaw, K., Yongue, R.F., Sutherland F.L., Meffre, S., Njonfang, E. and Ma, C. 2012. Detrital morphology and geochemistry: Method to characterize and constrain the origin of the Nsanargarati blue sapphires, south-western region of Cameroon. J. African Earth Sciences 70, 18-23.

139. Abduriyim, A., Sutherland, F.L. and Coldham T. 2012. Australian corundum, past present and future. Aust. Gemmol. 24 (10), 234-242.

140. Sutherland, F.L., Graham, I.T., Meffre, S., Zwingmann, H. and Pogson, R.E. 2012. Passive margin prolonged volcanism, East Australian Plate: outbursts, progressions, plate controls and suggested causes. Austr. J. of Earth Sci. 58 (7), 983-1015.

141. Abduriyim, A., Sutherland, F.L. and Belousova, E.A. 2012. U–Pb age and origin of gem zircon from the New England sapphire fields, New South Wales, Australia. Austr. J. of Earth Sci., 58 (7), 1067-1081.

142. Saminpanya, S. and Sutherland, F.L. 2013.Silica phase-transformations during diagenesis within petrified woods found in fluvial deposits from Thailand–Myanmar. Sedimentary Geology 290, 15-26.

143. Sutherland, F.L., Graham I.T., Hollis, J.D., Meffre, S., Zwingmann, H., Jourdan, F. and Pogson, R.E. 2014. Multiple felsic events within post-10 Ma volcanism, Southeast Australia: inputs in appraising proposed magmatic models. Austr J. of Earth Sci., 61 (2), 241-267.

144. Sutherland, F.L., Coenraads, R.R, Abduriyim, A., Meffre, S., Hoskin, P.W.O., Giuliani, G., Beattie, R., Wuhrer, R. and Sutherland, G.B. 2015. Corundum (sapphire) and zircon relationships, Lava Plains gem fields, NE Australia: integrated mineralogy, geochemistry, age determination, genesis and geographic typing. Min. Mag. 79 (3), 545-581.

145. Khin, Z., Sutherland, L., Yui, T-F., Meffre, S., Thu, K. 2015.Vanadium-rich ruby and sapphire within Mogok Gemfield, Myanmar: Implications for color and genesis. Miner. Depos. 50.

146. Vysotskiy, S.V, Necaev, V.P., Kissin, A. U., Yakovenko, V.V., Ignat’ve , A.V, Velive tsaya, T.A., Sutherland, F.L. and Agoshkov, A.I. 2015. Oxygen isotope composition as an indicator of ruby and sapphire origin: A review of Russian occurrences. Ore Geol. Rev. 68, 164-170.

147. Sutherland, F.L., Khin, Z., Meffre, S., Yui, T-F and Thu, K. 2015. Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting’ of Ge Corundum , Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar. Minerals 5, 61-79.

148 Sutherland, L., Graham, I., Yaxley, G., Armstrong, R., Giuliani, G., Nechaev, V. and Woodhead, J. 2016. Major zircon megacryst suites of the Indo-Pacific lithospheric margin (ZIP) and their petrogenetic and regional implications. Min. Petrol. 110, 399-410.

149. Attenbrow, V., Corkill, T., Pogson, R., Sutherland, L. and Grave, P. 2017. Non-destructive provenencing of ground-edged mafic artefacts of Holocene age. A case study. J. Field Archaeol.

150. Sutherland, L., Graham, I., Harris, S., Khin, Z., Meffre, S., Coldham, T., Coenraads, R., and Sutherland, G. 2016. Rubis Australiens. Rev. Gemmol. A.F. G. 197, 13-20 (In French).

151. Sutherland, F. L. 2017. Sapphire a not so simple gemstone. Amer. Mineral. 102, 1373-1374.

152. Sutherland, F.L., Graham, I.T., Harris, S.J., Coldham, T., Powell, W., Belousova, E. A. and Martin L. 2017. Unusual ruby –sapphire transition in alluvial megacrysts , Cenozoic basaltic field ,New England , New South Wales, Australia. Lithos 278 – 281.

153. Nechaev, V.P., Dai, S., Sutherland, F.L., Graham, I.T., and Nechaeva, E.V. 2018. The Cretaceous Turn of Geolgical Evolution: Key Evidence from East Asia. Acta. Geologica. Sinica. 92 (5), 1991-2003 (English Edition).

154. Piilonen, P.C., Sutherland, F.L., Danisik, M., Poirier, G., Valley, J.W. and Rowe, R. 2018. Zircon xenocrysts from Cenozoic Alkaline Basalts of the Ratanakiri Cambodian Zircon Volcanic Province, Southeast Asia – Trace Element Geochemistry – Revelations into the underlying lithospheric Mantle. Minerals 8 (12), 556.

155. Sutherland, F.L., Khin, Z., Meffre, S. Thompson, J., Goemann, K., Thu, K., Mohd Zin, M. and Harris, S.J. 2019. Diversity in Ruby Geochemistry and Its Inclusions: Intra- and Inter –Continental Comparisons from Myanmar and Eastern Australia. Minerals 9, 28.

156. Sutherland, F.L. 2019. Miocene Central Volcanoes of NW New South Wales: Genesis over a Lithospheric Cavity (?). Proc. Linn. Soc. NSW. 141, S85-S114.

157. Offler, R., Zwingmann, H., Foden, J., Sutherland, F.L. and Graham, I. 2019. Age and composition of dykes emplaced before and during the opening of the Tasman Sea – source implications. Austr. J. of Earth Sci. 66 (8), 1129 – 1144.

158. Sutherland, F.L., Graham, I.T., Zwingmann, H., Och, D.J., Gardner, C.J., Pogson, R.E., and Lay, A. 2020. Triassic to Neogene tectonomagmatic events, within the Lorne Basin Evolution, coastal New South Wales, eastern Australia. Austr. J. of Earth Sci. 67(1), 1 – 30.

159. Barron, L.M., Barron, B.J. and Sutherland, F.L. 2020. Re-appraisal of published nitrogen aggregation results in diamonds from Copeton, New South Wales. Austr. J. of Earth Sci. 67(1), 151 – 152.

160. Kirkland, C.L. Danisik, M., Marsden, R., Piilonen, P., Barham, L. and Sutherland, F.L. 2020. Dating young zircon: A case study from southeast Asian Megacrysts. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 274, 1– 19.

161. Sutherland, F.L. and Khin Zaw 2020. Editorial for Special Issue “ Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Ruby”. Minerals 10, 888 , doi0.3990/min 10100888.