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Spinal deformities are sometimes seen in fishes.
Five major causes have been identified. These are:
- hereditary factors
- damage during embryonic development
- diseases (including parasites)
- environmental influences (pollution)
Spinal deformities in farmed fishes can be caused by nutritional deficiencies (vitamins C and E and some amino acids).
Spinal deformities include:
- scoliosis - an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column
- lordosis - an abnormal inward (forward) curvature of the vertebral column
- broken back
- Hutchins, B. & R. Swainston. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete Field Guide for Anglers and Divers. Swainston Publishing. Pp. 180.
- Toften, H. & M. Jobling. 1996. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Artic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline. Journal of Fish Biology. 49: 668-677.